UNIT OPERATIONS IN FOOD PROCESSING
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Introduction
Material and energy
balances

Fluid-flow theory
Fluid-flow applications
Heat-transfer theory
Heat-transfer
applications

Drying
Evaporation
Contact-equilibrium
separation processes

Mechanical
separations

Size reduction
Mixing
Appendices
Index to Figures
Index to Examples
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CHAPTER 9

CONTACT-EQUILIBRIUM PROCESSES

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Introductionphase distribution equilibrium distribution coefficients
contact equilibrium separation
PART 1: THEORY
Concentrationsmole fractionpartial pressureAvogadro's Law
Gas/Liquid Equilibriapartial vapour pressureHenry's Law
       solubility of gases in liquids

Solid/Liquid Equiibriasolubility in liquids
       solubility/temperature relationshipsaturated solution
       supersaturated solution

Equilibrium-Concentration Relationshipsoverflow/underflow
       equilibrium diagram

Operating Conditionscontact stagesmass balances
Calculation of Separation in Contact/Equilibrium Processes
      
combining equilibrium and operating relationships
       deodorizing/steam strippingMcCabe/Thiele plot


PART 2: APPLICATIONS
Gas Absorption
Rate of Gas AbsorptionLewis and Whitman Theory
Stage-equilibrium Gas Absorption number of contact stages
Extraction and Washing
Rate of Extraction
Stage-equilibrium Extraction equilibrium and operating conditions
       McCabe Thiele diagram

Gas-absorption Equipment
Washing
Extraction and Washing Equipmentextraction battery
Crystallizationmother liquor
Crystallization Equilibriumsolubility and saturationnucleation
       metastable region

       seed crystalsheat of crystallization
Rate of Crystal Growth
Stage-equilibrium Crystallization
Crystallization Equipmentscraped surface heat exchanger
       evaporative crystallizer

Membrane Separationsosmotic pressureultrafiltration
       reverse osmosis

Rate of Flow Through Membranesvan't Hoff equation
       Diffusion equationsSherwood numberSchmidt number

Membrane Equipment
DistillationEquilibrium relationships
       boiling temperature/concentration diagram azeotropes

Steam Distillation
Vacuum Distillation
Batch Distillation
Distillation Equipment
Summary
Problems


Examples in this Chapter:
9.1. Mole fractions of ethanol in water
9.2. Mole fractions in air
9.3. Solubility of carbon dioxide in water
9.4. Single stage steam stripping, of taints from cream
9.5. Multiple stage steam stripping of taints from cream
9.6. Counter current extraction of oil from soya beans with hexane
9.7. Washing of casein curd
9.8. Crystallization of sodium chloride
9.9. Heat removal in crystallization cooling of lactose
9.10. Multiple stage sugar crystallisation by evaporation
9.11. Reverse osmosis: concentration of sucrose solution
9.12. Ultrafiltration of whey
9.13. Distillation of alcohol/water mixture

Figures in this Chapter:
9.1 Solubility of sodium nitrite in water
9.2 Contact equilibrium stages
9.3 Flows into and out from a stage
9.4 Steam stripping: McCabe-Thiele plot
9.5 Hexane extraction of oil from soya beans in stages
9.6 Hexane extraction of oil from soya beans: McCabe-Thiele plot
9.7 Extraction battery
9.8 Solubility and saturation curves for sucrose in water
9.9 Reverse osmosis systems
9.10 Boiling temperature/concentration diagram
9.11 Distillation column (a) assembly, (b) bubble-cap trays



Contact-Equilibrium Processes - INTRODUCTION


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Unit Operations in Food Processing. Copyright © 1983, R. L. Earle. :: Published by NZIFST (Inc.)
NZIFST - The New Zealand Institute of Food Science & Technology