UNIT OPERATIONS IN FOOD PROCESSING
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Introduction
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Heat-transfer theory
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Drying
Evaporation
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separation processes

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CHAPTER 8

EVAPORATION

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Introduction
The Single Effect Evaporator
Vacuum Evaporation
Heat Transfer in Evaporators
Condensers
Multiple-Effect Evaporation
Feeding of Multiple Effect Evaporators
Advantages of Multiple Effect Evaporators
Vapour Recompression
Boiling Point ElevationRaoult's LawDuhring's rule
       Duhring plotlatent heats of vaporization

Evaporation of Heat-Sensitive Materials
Evaporation Equipment
Open Pans
Horizontal-tube Evaporators
Vertical-tube Evaporators
Plate Evaporators
Long-tube Evaporators
Forced-circulation Evaporators
Evaporation for Heat-sensitive Liquids
Summary
Problems

Examples in this Chapter:
8.1. Single effect evaporator - steam usage and heat-transfer surface
8.2. Water required in a jet condenser for an evaporator
8.3. Heat exchange area for a surface condenser for an evaporator
8.4. Triple effect evaporator - steam usage and heat transfer surface
8.5. Duhring Plot for sodium chloride
8.6. Concentration of tomato juice in a climbing film evaporator

Figures in this Chapter:
8.1 Evaporator
8.2 Double effect evaporator – forward feed
8.3 Duhring plot for boiling point of sodium chloride solutions
8.4 Evaporators (a) basket type (b) long tube (c) forced circulation



Evaporation >
INTRODUCTION, THE SINGLE-EFFECT EVAPORATOR

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Unit Operations in Food Processing. Copyright © 1983, R. L. Earle. :: Published by NZIFST (Inc.)
NZIFST - The New Zealand Institute of Food Science & Technology